Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the urine. Microscopic hematuria (small amounts of blood, can be seen only on urinalysis or light microscopy) Macroscopic hematuria (or “frank” or “gross” hematuria ) can be seen with the naked eye.
Some common causes of hematuria include urinary tract infection, bladder stones, kidney stones or ureter stones, benign prostatic hyperplasia, in older men, especially those over 50. More serious causes may include kidney disease, tumors, injury or infections. Many people have hematuria without having other related problems. A series of tests may be ordered to determine the cause.
A complete medical history and physical examination will be completed. Diagnostic procedures for hematuria may include the following:
- Urinalysis – A laboratory examination of the urine for infection, red blood cells, other various cells or excessive protein.
- Blood Test – A laboratory examination to look for high levels of waste products.
- IVP (Intravenous Pyelogram) – a series of X-rays with the injection of a contrast dye used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
- Cystoscopy – An examination of the urinary bladder and urinary tract via the urethra to check for structural abnormalities or obstructions such as tumors or stones.